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Parkinson Disease: An Understanding on the Mechanism and Current Therapeutic Targets


Received On: 11/04/2014
Accepted On: 11/04/2014


Author(s)

Sekar, S., Chidambaram, S. B.


Author's Affiliation


Abstract

Parkinson disease (PD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative movement disorder affecting approximately 1% of the world’s population. It is characterised by a profound and selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and depletion of dopamine in striatum. PD is clinically characterised by resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability and gait difficulty. Various biochemical alterations such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal protein aggregation and inflammation were also identified in the affected brain regions of PD and this provides the clue how genetic and environmental factors induce cell death. Mutations in Parkin, α-synuclein, DJ-1, LRRK2, PINK1, UCH-L1, and ATP13A2 will adversely cause PD.  Current medications treat symptoms; none arrest or slow down dopaminergic neuron degeneration. The main impediment in developing neuroprotective therapies is a limited understanding of the key molecular events that provoke neurodegeneration. Though there is no cure, there are several management options for the early treatment of PD. Drugs such as levodopa, COMT inhibitors, monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors, dopamine agonists, anticholinergics etc., will slow down the progression of the disease but their side effects may exclude the use of the most effective drugs. This review describes the molecular mechanism and their current and future therapeutic targets in the management of PD.


Keywords

Parkinson Disease, Motor and Non-Motor Complications, Molecular Mechanism, Current and Future Therapeutic Targets

Cite This Article

Sathiya Sekar, & Saravana Babu Chidambaram. (2014). Parkinson Disease: An Understanding on the Mechanism and Current Therapeutic Targets. International Journal for Pharmaceutical Research Scholars (IJPRS), 3(2), 77-90.


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