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Aquasomes: A Self Assembling Nanobiopharmaceutical Carrier System for Bio-Active Molecules: A Review

Received On: 12/02/2012
Accepted On: 19/02/2012


Patel, J.K., Patel, K.N., Patel, H.K., Patel, B.A., Patel, P.A.

Author's Affiliation


Aquasomes are the self-assembling nanobiopharmaceutical carrier system, contains nanocrystalline calcium phosphate or ceramic diamond, is covered by a glassy polyhydroxyl oligomeric film. Aquasomes are spherical (5–925nm) particles used for drug and antigen delivery. Aquasomes are called as “bodies of water" their water like properties protect and preserve fragile biological molecules. Its high degree of surface exposure is used in targeting of bio-active molecules to specific sites. Three types of core materials are mainly used for producing aquasomes: Tin oxide, Nanocrystalline carbon ceramics and Brushite. Calcium phosphate is the core of interest, due to its natural presence in the body. The brushite is unstable and converts to hydroxyapatite upon prolong storage and seems a better core for the preparation of aquasomes. It is widely used for the preparation of implants. Aquasomes exploited as a RBC substitutes, vaccines for delivery of viral antigen and as targeted system for intracellular gene therapy. Enzyme activity and sensitivity towards molecular conformation made aquasome as a novel carrier for enzymes like DNAses and pigment/dyes. This report reviews the principles of self assembly, the challenges of maintaining both the conformational integrity and biochemical activity of immobilized surface pairs.


Aquasomes, Self assembling carrier system, Carbon ceramics (diamonds) and Brushite (calcium phosphate dihydrate)

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