Hyperlipidemia is an abnormally high level of fatty substances called lipids, largely cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood. The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effects of Protocatechuic acid in atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemia. In an atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment of Protocatechuic acid at the dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein and elevation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Hence by considering the effects observed in this model, it has been suggested that Protocatechuic acid was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity, this may be due to its effect on increasing the metabolism of the cholesterol by activating lipoprotein lipase or by increasing reverse cholesterol transport.
Hyperlipidemia is the disorders of lipid metabolism have been ranked as one of the greatest risk factors contributing to the prevalence and severity of atherosclerosis, stroke and coronary heart diseases1,2. Hyperlipidemia is characterized by elevated serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, very low- density lipoprotein (LDL, VLDL) cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Atherosclerosis refers to the deposition of fatty substances on the inner lining of the blood vessels. Lipids undergo a peroxidative change in the arterial wall and eventually result in tissue injury. It is characterized by vascular areas containing mononuclear and proliferation of smooth muscle cells resulting in hardening and thickening of the arterial walls3.